Your links show what I already said: provocative behaviour over international waters. I haven't seen any mention of airspace violations except that one over Sweden. And that's what some posters repeat: that Russia repeatedly violates other countries' airspace.
I am no expert on Ireland, but do you think Irish economic miracle had anything to do with it? Once Ireland became a very prosperous and rich country, its people content and generally satisfied, it is only natural that more extreme elements slowly began to disappear. I'm not saying this is what happened, but to my untrained eye this certainly seems a plausible explanation. With regards to Middle East, I find it equally plausible that the destruction of countries and functioning societies, foreign support for all kinds of unsavoury guys and general meddling in other peoples' affairs, as well as widespread feeling of helplessness and rage is what fuels terrorism. Before someone interjects, no, I don't think this is the sole reason, but it is one of the more important ones. So, what to do from the perspective of an outsider? What can we do on our end? Stop involving ourselves in other peoples' business (and civil wars), stop supporting terrible regimes in the region for our own petty interests (and this goes for everyone, US, Russia, etc.), don't play on the card of Sunni-Shia divide (foreign enablers of Saudi-Iranian struggle bear a grave responsibility for the sectarian violence in the region), promote true democracy and self-determination, show genuine good will to resolve the Palestinian issue... As I said, look at the root causes. There's much to be accomplished by some honest rethinking and retooling of our regional approach. Nothing, and I mean nothing, will be solved by these vile geopolitical games where foreign powers support a whole menagerie of organisations and governments lifted straight from Dungeon&Dragons Monster Manual in the name of "stability", "freedom", and other nice-sounding platitudes.
I see various posters repeat the claim that Russians do these things all the time. This is a candid question, I'm not trying to be cynical: when? Beside problems with Turkey, I'm only aware of a single Russian incursion into Swedish airspace last year. All other "problematic" incidents that I know of occurred over international waters, usually in the Baltic, North Sea, Pacific, etc.
Well, I suppose it's time for Greeks, Iraqi, and Armenians to shoot down a couple thousand Turkish jets then... same thing, right? "Can't expect to continually fuck with the airspace of other countries without any repercussions whatsoever", right? Since that appears to be standard MO in these kinds of situations, I guess it's settled then.
Which leads me to another point: terrorism is best fought in the same vein as rampant crime, namely by looking at root causes and dealing with them first and foremost. Violence and crackdown may help in the short run, but the only way to truly combat this menace is by affording those who resort to terrorism opportunities to feel like their lives and their wishes matter, without resorting to blowing other people up. That's why the current Western paradigm of dealing with the Middle East will never ever result in peace. Jihadism and Caliphate and Islamic state and all these nice things are symptoms of a much deeper problem. One does not fight illness by treating symptoms -- terrorism in this case -- but by looking long and hard into what led to the current state of affairs. And there the complicity of certain international players is horrendous.
You're right, they are immoral and unjust. However, since many in the Muslim world feel, rightly or wrongly, that they are persecuted and downtrodden by both their domestic rulers and their foreign enablers/supporters, they resort to tactics and weapons at their disposal. Please don't take this as evidence of me advocating for terrorism.
There you have your answer, Altherion. Turkey hopes to nuke the peace process, or at least influence its direction. I think they are not very happy with recent international developments regarding Syria and the fate of Assad in particular. ETA: Eh, the NATO treaty and its provisions... nobody seemed to care one whit about those back in 1999 during the Kosovo campaign. Come on, we've seen some innovative and acrobatic interpretations of law these last 15+ years in a whole number of situations.
I get that clarity is important, though I'd say that online forums aren't really places to expound on the details as it would take ages. Granted, it can lead to unfortunate simplifications of reality. That said, and speaking of the US/NATO role, it's also true that they had their own training/arming/financing programme that largely failed as well (as the administration admitted recently). Many of those resources, human and otherwise, also ended up with bona fide terrorists. You know what Captain Picard told Worf and Chancellor Gowron when they asked him for Federation's support in the Klingon Civil War? We don't involve ourselves in other people's civil wars. Smart man, Jean-Luc.