You can find the full text in the OP to Heresy 180 over on the Dance with Dragons page. Things have obviously changed a bit over the years and there's a suspicion that Sansa might substitute for Arya. Her role has certainly changed, but in overall terms although the story has obviously gotten bigger in every way and was never completely mapped out anyway, I'd imagine that the core outline remains the same
Exactly so and as ever in considering this its worth recalling what GRRM himself said in the original 1993 synopsis: ...Arya will be more forgiving... until she realizes, with terror, that she has fallen in love with Jon, who is not only her half-brother but a man of the Night's Watch, sworn to celibacy. Their passion will continue to torment Jon and Arya throughout the trilogy, until the secret of Jon's true parentage is finally revealed in the last book. Clearly Jon is not Arya's half-brother, but it suggests that the resolution of the mystery will lead to Jon getting inside Arya's knickers rather than having anything to do with the Iron Throne - and there's nothing in there either about Azor Ahai or any other Chosen One - its Danaerys the Dragonlord who must rally Westeros against the Others
Of course its always worth reminding ourselves that none of this "chosen one" stuff is even hinted at in the early synopses which clearly put Danaerys on the Iron Throne and facing the problem of what to do about the Others. And there the real question is not about a hero arising but what the Others are about and who or what's behind them and here the key is GRRM's remarks about Aragorn and Lord of the Rings in that Rolling Stone interview: Tolkien doesn't ask the question: What was Aragorn's tax policy? Did he maintain a standing army? What did he do in times of flood and famine? And what about all these orcs? By the end of the war, Sauron is gone but all of the orcs aren't gone – they're in the mountains. Did Aragorn pursue a policy of systematic genocide and kill them? Even the little baby orcs, in their little orc cradles?
This you see goes beyond Aragorn and Danaerys; to GRRM there is more to the orcs than ugly killers and he clearly feels that this was a failing in LOTR, so why should we assume that the Others [his Others] are as anonymous as Tolkein's orcs?
Essentially yes, as I said before we needn't necessarily place too much faith in the Prince that was promised coming from the line of Aerys and Rhaella given that she was probably telling the Targaryens what they wanted to hear rather than accurately foretelling events. While I'm still of a mind that there are multiple heroes waiting to rise again at need the lost in translation business might be taken as strengthening the case for Danaerys the Dragonlord being the one true and authentic hero. Master Benero has proclaimed her as such without a qualm; Maester Aemon concluded that the language was wrong and that it was she, and we could be seeing the same thing with the Dothraki where the Dosh Khaleen proclaimed her to be carrying the Stallion that Rides when in fact she herself is the "Stallion". If so, then we might be looking not at Western mythologies, but further east and Shiva the Destroyer as her literary role model.
Of course the corollary to this is that there is no one hero foretold; that Azor Ahai may return only in Asshai, the Stallion only among the Dothraki and we may question whether the Prince will arise in Valyria or whether he is the Prince in Winterfell who will be Bran the Blessed - the Crow God.
Once again not a lot to go on. If there is something significant then it has to be connected with the smell. I really don't know of anything myself but I suppose that if you can have an odour of sanctity you can have the reverse.
Depends on how you define magical. What started off this chain of thought was how a native Westerosi version of the Prince that was Promised prophecy might be discovered - pointing eventually to Bran, the Prince of Winterfell.
Reading is one thing. Understanding its relevance is quite another. Here Roose appears to have learned a piece of information that he can use, but which looks as if it is old rather than recent and political, hence the suggestion that its a translation of some ancient runes pertaining to the North.
It might be semantics as to whether Roose is intending to use what he's learned or to deny it to others, but as to the denial that would depend on whether the knowledge might be used by someone else perhaps to Roose's disadvantage. If, speaking very hypothetically [and it is hypothetical since the situation doesn't arise at this point], the book was a treatise on the care, feeding and slaying of dragons, then conceivably Roose may find it advantageous to be the only guy in town who knows how to do it and thus save the day and the princess to go with it. So what else is going to help Roose? He wants the North. He's shown no interest in anything else so presumably the knowledge relates to that.In the past we've discussed the possibility that the Boltons may be an offshoot of the Starks and perhaps even descended of the Nights King, but if it were so I really don't see it coming as a revelation in a book. There's something else in there about power rather than remembrance and more than likely of use only to a Northerner who knows how to fill in the blanks, hence the suggestion as to deep knowledge and ultimately Roose playing to the song rather than the throne.
As you say it was the certainly knowledge rather than the proof which was important and that in turn means that Roose wanted to act or at least have the option to act accordingly. Whether he was then deliberately destroying or casually discarding the book is probably where the semantics come in. And that still comes back to the thought that there was some deep rather than political knowledge in there, which may have meant nothing to the original compiler.
Just to expand a little on the book. All we really know is that Roose found something important in it, which he read, inwardly digested and then destroyed to prevent anyone else discovering it. We can reasonably conclude therefore that it was [a] something not generally known and useful to him. This actually narrows the options dramatically. We're not talking about some secret concerning the Targaryens and or their dragons. That's too recent to be known of only in an old book [somebody always tells] and irrelevant in that the last Dragonlord is way out east. Baratheons? Unlikely given [a] he knows he's really dealing with the Lannisters and something in an old book isn't going to hurt them. This latter point is the important bit. Something written in an old book isn't going to upset the balance of power in Westeros, yet whatever knowledge is revealed is going to have to be used by him, not proclaimed. This suggests that its old knowledge about the Starks and about Winterfell and perhaps thereby the Prince in Winterfell.
That's certainly how how I read it as well and while I'm not a metallurgist either I do have a lurking recollection of some metals breaking in extreme cold. I'd hate to be specific but as you say all it requires is that same nugget of useless information planted in GRRM's mind