A relevant point: The current Lannisters aren't the true Lannisters, but a branch of the Lyddens of Deep Den. Ser Joffrey Lydden, a knight of House Lydden, married to the only daughter of King Gerold III Lannister, inherited the throne of the Westerlands and took the Lannister surname. This kind of thing has probably happened several times in the past, so the ancient lines have probably not remained unbroken across the centuries, the lords just pretend they are for prestige reasons.
Ah, sorry, I misinterpreted your post. But still, it wouldn't make sense that another planet had Earth's Ice Age megafauna like mammoths and dire wolves or giant humanoids able to interbreed with humans.
To tell the truth, I'm kinda losing interest. I have re-read all the books several times and discussed every little piece of information until getting bored. It doesn't help that, after waiting years for ADWD, almost everything that happened there had been correctly predicted by many people, there were no surprises and very little was really new or unexpected. Don't get me wrong, I love the books, but I don't feel like re-reading and going over them yet again, and I don't know how long I will have to wait to get a new one. It is difficult to keep the excitement. I'm still in love with the world building, but I don't expect to be given many more juicy bits after the trove that was The World of Ice and Fire. I'm resigned to not learning much more about the ASOIAF universe. I hope TWOW brings a few new turns that re-awaken my interest.
How many people who aren't Lannisters take that motto seriously? And the fact that they take pride in paying their debts doesn't mean the would know squat about running a Central Bank. Hell, nobody in that world knows how to do it, because there aren't any. And even if they found an administrator able to run the thing properly, would that administrator be able to tell Tywin that he was wrong if he received a stupid direct order from him?
Look at Cersei, how badly she messed with the Iron Bank and Faith when trying to reduce the royal debt. There was people who knew those were bad ideas, but they either weren't listened or they didn't dare to speak.
They could make a mess out of pure ignorance, try to fix said mess throwing gold coins at it (like they always do) and provoke an explosive inflation in doing so.
She would be angry at him, but I'm not sure she would be "disappointed": I think she knew what kind of man he was better than anybody else. She was his cousin, she probably knew him since they were little kids, and was married to him for years, and if what is said about their marriage is even partially true, she probably was the only person Tywin ever lowered his defenses to. So she probably would know what she could expect from him. And she knew about the incest thing between Cersei and Jamie. She might even feel somewhat relieved that their children hadn't become even MORE screwed-up.
Save for the Bank of England, there weren't real National Banks until the Napoleonic Age in our own world. They were created so governments could borrow money to finance themselves during a period of incredibly expensive wars. Previous attempts to create Central Banks, like that of John Law's Banque Générale in France ended in failure because the Crown and the ruling elite wouldn't respect its authonomy.
Now think how Westeros is ruled. If someobody like Cersei tried to create her "Golden Bank of Casterly Rock", she wouldn't treat it as an authonous entity. She would treat it as her own coffer, and use the money for her own political goals, which in Westeros are the same as her private goals. Kings treat the treasury as their own personal money, and they would do the same to the National Bank. And what is most important, everybody would know that from the beginning, so they would know the Crown would do as they pleased with their money, which would seriously hinder their trust, which is poison for a banking system. It would crash for sure.
And even the Iron Bank isn't much like our contemporary Central Banks. It's a private enterprise, even if it has close ties to Braavos's government, just like the Medici Bank was a private enterprise despite the Medici being the rulers of Florence. And the Iron Bank works with physical metal coins like any other Ancient/Medieval/Renaissance banking institution; they issue letters of change, but these letters of change are convertible to gold; nobody in Westeros or Essos would take a bill not easily convertible to gold.
From the point of view of the Pope and of all the Catholics Henry VIII's marriage didn't become real because he started a new religion. But Henry VIII had the power to kill or imprision anybody within England who dared to tell him so. Sansa doesn't have that power.
From the point of view of the Faith it doesn't matter what you believe. The Seven are very real beings, and she made a vow to them. What Sansa believes is irrelevant, because the Seven are real no matter what she believes.
Oh, yes, the king allows the heathen northmen to worship their wild gods and even acknowledges their senseless, fake marriages in front of ridiculous trees as if they were real for political reasons, but young lady, you have made a real vow to the real gods now, and there is no escape.
Saying that she isn't really married because she doesn't believe in them is like being a soldier that voluntarily signs to serve in the army and later defects because he doesn't believe in violence.
Maybe. But people tend to identify most races with some typical physical features.
Let say the woman the original post speaks about only likes guys who look like Orlando Bloom and Brad Pitt. There may be some Afro-American guy who has skin and hair tone and eye colour just like him, but, 99 % of people you ask would describe her preference as liking blond White guys.
Or the opposite. if she had said she likes guys like Denzel Washington or Michael Jai White, most people would describe her preference as liking Black guys most.
I guess you could say "there is no way she doesn't like both Orlando Bloom and Denzel Washington, they are both attractive", but that just isn't true. There are many people who will find both attractive, but there are women (and men) who obsess about Orlando Bloom and others who find him utterly unattractive.
It may be insensitive to say "I don't find people of XXXXXXXX race attractive", it may be even racist, depending on the context in which you say it, but having that preference isn't racist; people has all kind of sexual preferences, and they aren't accountable for what they like.
Also, sexual attraction is hardly uncompatible with racism. You don't have to respect somebody in order to feel sexually attracted to that person.
The Pope refused to annull Henry VIII's marriage, so Henry VIII had to start his own national church with himself as head so he could give himself permission to divorce. So long as Henry VIII remained a Catholic, he couldn't annull a marriage, not even his own. It is the same in Westeros. The High Septon is the only one who can annull a marriage, and the king can pressure him, threaten and blackmail him into compliance, even, but not overrule him. Tywin told Tyrion that he would tell the High Septon to annull his marriage to Sansa if he didn't impregante her, not that he would tell Joffrey to annull it. Of course, Dany or Stannis could start their own religion and seize all the prerrogatives of the High Septon, just like Henry VIII did, but we are speaking of the current situation here.
They could have pressed for a reasonable upper limit in number, country of origin (as in, we will take only people who can prove they come from Syria or Iraq) and in time of arrival (as in, we won't take anybody who arrives one of two years from now).
However, many countries explicitly refused to take more than a couple hundred refugees (and only Christian ones).
Which, from a ruthlessly pragmatist, selfish point of view works for Poland and Denmark, but, what were Hungary, Slovakia and Czech Republic thinking? If no country takes its share of refugees, they become Hungary's and its close neighbours' problem, not Germany's.
Austria, which is in a similar position as a transit country understood it and became a supporter of the quota system.
I guess they were trying to set an example, expecting the other countries to accept the quota system. If they contributed more than anybody else, the other countries couldn't say "what about you?".
But it didn't work as expected. More than half of Europe refused the quotes. Hungary refused to keep any refugee and joined the group of countries fighting against the quotas. The Czech and Slovak interior ministers proposed to create a train corridor from Hungary to Germany.
So the German government pulled back and is going to let the countries that are between Germany and the Mediterranean deal with the crisis.
It will work for Denmark, Poland, the Baltic Countries...etc., which aren't transit countries, but the countries that were most adamant in their refusal to the quota system (besides Poland) were Hungary, Slovakia and Czech Republic, which are transit countries (the Austria-Hungary border is much smaller and easier to control than the Slovakia-Hungary border). It is going to become their problem now.
I'm afraid the pressure will be transmitted to Hungary's neighbours. The refugees will try to travel through Croatia and Slovenia or through Bulgary and Romania. Those countries (and Serbia, and Macedonia) will eventually close their borders too.
Greece can't deal with the refugees on its own, and Turkey won't take them back, so the Greek will eventually have to try to lock the refugees in camps.
Unless all contries try and pull their heads out of their own asses this is going to be HORRIBLE.